Posts (95)

Fri, Sep 15 3:47pm · Dissemination of a Child Passenger Safety Program Through Trauma Center-Community Partnerships.

Abstract

Improper child passenger restraint use contributes to higher pediatric motor vehicle collision morbidity and mortality among cultural minority populations. Child passenger safety education improves caregiver knowledge of restraint use, but effective interventions require culturally specific programming. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child passenger safety education program culturally adapted through a pediatric trauma center’s community partnerships. A nonexperimental observational cohort study using program evaluation data for the child passenger safety education programs during a 24-month period. Paired pretest/posttest self-reported survey responses measured changes in caregiver knowledge and self-efficacy of restraint use. Data were analyzed by class location and by caregiver language using a paired t test and Wilcoxon’s signed ranks test. A total of 1,795 paired survey responses were collected in English, Spanish, or Russian. An increase in mean knowledge scores occurred overall, with a difference in mean of 0.565 (SE = 0.022, 95% CI [0.521, 0.607]). Stratification by class site and by language reflected significant increases in median scores, but findings were variable by study group. Pretest median scores for self-efficacy of restraint use were high for all groups, but the increases in posttest medians were also significant across groups (p ≤ .001). Caregiver knowledge and self-efficacy for child passenger restraint use increased after participation in the community classes. The pediatric trauma center’s community partnerships facilitated uptake and adaption of the child passenger safety education programs and increased the injury prevention outreach to minority communities.

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Fri, Sep 8 12:30pm · Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network: Public Outreach and Engagement

Abstract

Stroke is becoming a leading cause of disability and death, and a major public health concern in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network (SIREN) seeks to comprehensively characterize the genomic, sociocultural, economic, and behavioral risk factors for stroke and to build effective teams for research to address and decrease the burden of stroke and other non-communicable diseases in SSA. One of the first steps to address this goal was to effectively engage the communities that suffer high burdens of disease in SSA. This paper describes the process of SIREN project’s community engagement activities in Ghana and Nigeria. The aims of community engagement (CE) within SIREN are to: i) elucidate information about knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices (KABP) about stroke and its risk factors from individuals of African ancestry in SSA; ii) educate the community about stroke and ways to decrease disabilities and deaths from stroke; and iii) recruit 3000 control research subjects to participate in a case-control stroke study

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Fri, Sep 8 12:12pm · Are "goods for guns" good for the community? An update of a community gun buyback program.

BACKGROUND: Gun violence remains a leading cause of death in the United States. Community gun buyback programs provide an opportunity to dispose of extraneous firearms. The purpose of this study was to understand the demographics, motivation, child access to firearms, and household mental illness of buyback participants in hopes of improving the program’s effectiveness.

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Fri, Aug 4 11:12am · Depression and Its Correlates Among Brazilian Immigrants in Massachusetts, USA

Abstract

The goal of this paper is to assess the frequency of depression symptoms among Brazilian immigrants living in Massachusetts, the second largest Brazilian immigrant population in the United States, and to identify correlates of depression. A convenience sample of Brazilian immigrants aged 18 or older residing in Massachusetts was used. Data were collected from December 2013 to March 2014, in the Consulate General of Brazil in Boston and in three religious events, using a structure questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Depression symptoms were observed in 35.3% of the respondents, with equal distribution by sex. Correlates of depression were low income, being single, poor English proficiency, and poor self-perception of health. These results suggest a need for community outreach, sensitization, and counseling, in Portuguese and adapted to the culture of Brazilian immigrants.
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Wed, Jul 12 1:42pm ·

Fri, Jul 7 2:05pm · Factors Affecting Dietary Practices in a Mississippi African American Community

Abstract

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This study examined the practices, personal motivation, and barriers of African American communities in Mississippi regarding their dietary practices. We selected the Metro Jackson Area comprised of Hinds, Madison and Rankin Counties because it is a combination of urban and rural communities. The sample consisted of 70 participants from seven sites. A total of seven focus groups responded to six questions to assess practices, personal motivation, and barriers to dietary practices: (1) Where in your community can you access fresh fruits and vegetables? (2) How many meals a day should a person eat? (3) What would you consider to be a healthy breakfast, lunch and dinner? (4) What would you consider to be a healthy snack? (5) What do you consider to be your motivations for eating healthy? (6) What do you consider to be your barriers to eating healthy? Each of the seven focus groups consisted of 6 to 12 participants and provided details of their dietary practices. The focus group interviews were digitally-recorded. The recorded interviews were transcribed. The majority of the participants stated that there is a limited availability of fresh fruits/vegetables in rural areas because of a shortage of grocery stores. When they do find fruits, they are priced very high and are unaffordable. Even though health conditions dictate food frequency and portion size, community members feel that individuals should eat three good balanced meals per day with snacks, and they should adhere to small portion sizes. While the desire to attain overall good health and eliminate associative risks for heart disease (e.g., diabetes, obesity) are personal motivations, the cost of food, transportation, age, and time required for food preparation were seen as barriers to healthy eating. Decisions regarding meal choice and meal frequency can have an impact on long-term health outcomes. Health promotion programs should become an integral part of academic- community collaborative agreements.

Fri, Jul 7 2:00pm · Developing a nationwide K–12 outreach model: Physiology Understanding (PhUn) Week 10 years later

Abstract

Since 2005, nearly 600 Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn Week) events have taken place across the U.S., involving American Physiological Society (APS) members in K–12 outreach. The program seeks to build student understanding of physiology and physiology careers, assist teachers in recognizing physiology in their standards-based curriculum, and involve more physiologists in K–12 outreach. Formative goals included program growth (sites, participants, and leaders), diversification of program models, and development of a community of practice of physiologists and trainees involved in outreach. Eleven years of member-provided data indicate that the formative goals are being met. Nearly 100,000 K–12 students have been reached during the last decade as an increasing pool of physiologists took part in a growing number of events, including a number of international events. The number and types of PhUn Week events have steadily increased as a community of practice has formed to support the program. Future program goals include targeting regional areas for PhUn Week participation, establishing research collaboratives to further explore program impacts, and providing on-demand training for physiologists.
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Wed, Jul 5 2:48pm · Early discharge hospital at home

Abstract

Background

Early discharge hospital at home is a service that provides active treatment by healthcare professionals in the patient’s home for a condition that otherwise would require acute hospital inpatient care. This is an update of a Cochrane review.

Objectives

To determine the effectiveness and cost of managing patients with early discharge hospital at home compared with inpatient hospital care.

Search methods

We searched the following databases to 9 January 2017: the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and EconLit. We searched clinical trials registries.

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